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SPRAIN

A sprain is a stretch and tear of one or more ligament that connects two or more bones at a joint in our body. The seriousness of the injury depends directly on the extent of injury and the number of ligaments affected.
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon. Muscles move your skeleton in an amazing variety of ways. When a muscle contracts it pulls on a tendon, which is in turn connected to your bone. Muscles are made to stretch, but if stretched too far, or if stretched while contracting, an injury called a strain may result.

Cause-
The sprain can happen due to -

  • A fall when the person falls with an outstretched arm or slides into something with force and land on side of the foot
  • A sudden twist, for example, a sudden twist in the knee with the foot placed firmly on ground
  • A blow to the body making the joint getting out of the normal position. It tears or stretches the ligament backing up the joint.
Commonly affected joints-
Although any joint can experience a sprain, some of the more common include:
  • The ankle. It is the most common, and has been said that sprains such as serious ankle sprains are more painful and take longer to heal than actually breaking the bones in that area. See sprained ankle for more details.
  • The knee. Perhaps one of the more talked about sprains is that to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. This is a disabling sprain common to athletes, especially in football, basketball, soccer, pole vaulting, and judo.
  • The fingers.
  • The wrist.
  • The toes.
Symptoms-
The symptoms of a sprain are typically pain, swelling, and bruising of the affected joint. Symptoms will vary with the intensity of the injury.

Grade I - Mild Sprain
Mild sprain happens due to overstretching or tearing of ligaments with no instability in joint. The patient generally experiences less pain, swelling and little or no loss in functional ability.

Grade II - Moderate Sprain
It is incomplete tearing of ligament identified by bruising, temperate pain and swelling. The patient thus gets unable to put weight on the affected joint and feels loss of function. X ray is required to help the health care supplier makes out whether the fracture has caused the swelling and pain.

Grade III - Severe Sprain
Severe sprain is the tear or rupture of the ligament causing severe pain, swelling and bruising. X ray helps to make out where the broken bone is. As you diagnose the sprain, the doctor may ask the patient about how the injury has happened.

Risk factors-
1.Fatigue muscles.
2.Suddenly starting of exercise after sedentary lifestyle.
3.Commonly found in those athletes who do not warm up.
4.Poor conditioning of body.

Diagnosis-
1.Medical history
2.X-ray to rule out fracture
3.MRI- in prolonged cases.

Treatment-
1.Rest- The sprain should be rested. No additional force should be applied on site of the sprain. If, for example, the sprain were an ankle sprain, then walking should be kept to a minimum.
2.Ice- ice should be applied immediately to reduce swelling. The ice in cloth should be wrapped. Ice should not be placed directly on skin surface.
3.Compression- the affected area must not be moved and it should be wrapped to immobilize and provide support.
4.Elevation- the swollen area must be elevated above the heart level in order to reduce further swelling.
5.Medications- to reduce pain.

Prevention-
  • Wear protective footwear for activities that place stress on ankle and other joints.
  • Make sure that shoes fit the feet properly.
  • Avoid high-heeled shoes.
  • Always warm-up and stretch prior to exercise and sports.
  • Avoid sports and activities for which patient is not conditioned.
Role of homoeopathy
Homeopathy is recognized as the safest, quick responsive and less expensive form of treatment against all ailments and it is used by millions of people worldwide. Homeopathy is blessed with valuable, non toxic and non addictive medicines for boosting energy, which surprisingly help to enhance performance and perfection. It is also effective in healing a sprain/s.

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